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Welcome to part 3 of the Virtual Datacenter scaling problems with traditional shared storage series. Last week I published an article about the FAST presentation “A Practical Implementation of Clustered Fault Tolerant Write Acceleration in a Virtualized Environment”. Ian Forbes followed up with the question about the advantages of throughput and latency of host-to-host network versus a traditional SAN when both have similar network speeds.
Part 1: Intro
Part 2: Storage Area Network topology
IOPS distribution amongst ESXi hosts
In the previous part of this series the IOPS provided by the array were equally divided amongst the ESXi hosts. In reality given the nature of applications and their variance it’s the application demand that drives the I/O demand. And due to this I/O demand will not be equally balanced across all the host in the cluster.
The virtual datacenter is comprised of different resource layers each with components that introduce their own set of load balancing algorithms. Back in 2009 Chad published nice diagram depicting all the queues and buffers of a typical storage environment. Go read the excellent article “VMware I/O queues, micro bursting and multipathing”.
How can you ensure that the available paths to the array are load-balanced based on virtual machine demand and importance? Unfortunately for us today’s virtual datacenter lacks load balance functionality that clusters these different layers, reducing hotspots and optimally distributes workloads. Let’s focus on the existing algorithms currently available, and possibly present, in virtual datacenters around the world.
Clustered load balancers
The only cluster-wide load balancing tools are DRS and Storage DRS. Both cluster resources into seamless pools and distribute workload according to their demand and their priority. When the current host cannot provide the entitled resources a virtual machine demands, the virtual machine is migrated to another host or datastore. DRS aggregates CPU and memory resources, Storage DRS tries to mix and match the VM I/O & capacity demand with the datastore I/O and capacity availability.
The layers between compute and datastores are equally important yet network bandwidth and data paths are not managed as a clustered resource. Load balancing occurs within the boundaries of the host; specifically they focus on outgoing data streams.
Data Path load balancing
With IP-based storage networks, multiple options exist to balance the workload across the outgoing ports. With iSCSI, binding of multiple VMkernel NICs can be used to distribute workload, some storage vendors prefer a configuration using multiple VLANS to load balance across storage ports. When using NFS Load Based Teaming (LBT) can be used to load balance data across multiple NICs.
Unfortunately all these solutions don’t take the path behind the first switch port in consideration. Although the existing workload is distributed across the available uplinks as efficiently as possible, no solution exists that pools the connected paths of the hosts in the cluster and distribute the workloads across the hosts accordingly. A solution that distributes virtual machines across host with less congested data paths in a well-informed and automatic manner simply does not exist.
Distributed I/O control
Storage I/O Control (SIOC) is a datastore-wide scheduler, allowing distributing of queue priority amongst the virtual machines located on various hosts that are connected to that datastore. SIOC is designed to deal with situations where contention occurs. If necessary it divides the available queue slots across the hosts to satisfy the I/O requirements based on the virtual machine priority. SIOC measures the latency from the (datastore) device inside the kernel to disk inside the array. It is not designed to migrate virtual machines to other hosts into the cluster to reduce latency or bandwidth limitations incurred by the data path. Network IO Control (NetIOC) is based on similar framework. It allocates and distributes bandwidth across the virtual machines that are using the NICs of that particular host. It has no ability to migrate virtual machines by taking lower utilized links of other hosts in the cluster into account.
VMware Pluggable Storage Architecture (PSA) is interesting. The PSA allows third party vendors to provide their own native multipathing software (NMP). Within the PSA, Path Selection Plugins (PSPs) are active that are responsible for choosing a physical path for I/O requests. The VMware Native Multipathing Plugin framework supports three types of PSPs; Most Recently Used (MRU), Fixed and Round Robin. The Storage Array Type Plugins (SATP) run in conjunction with NMP and manages array specific operations. SATPs are aware of storage array specifics, such as whether it’s an active/active array or active/passive array. For example, when the array uses ALUA (Asymmetric LUN Unit Access) it determines which paths lead to the ports of the managing controllers.
The Round Robin PSP distributes I/O for a datastore down all active paths to the managing controller and uses a single path for a given number of I/O operations. Although it distributes workload across all (optimized) paths, it does not guarantee that throughput will be constant. There is no optimization on the I/O profile of the host. Its load balance algorithm is based purely on equal numbers of I/O down a given path, without regard to what the block size of I/O type is, it will not be balanced on application workload characteristics or the current bandwidth utilization of the particular path. Similar to SIOC and NetIOC, NMP is not designed to treat data paths as clustered resource and has no ability to distribute workloads across all available uplinks in the cluster.
EMC PowerPath is a third party NMP and has multiple algorithms that consider current bandwidth consumption of the paths and the pending types of I/O. It also integrates certain storage controller statistics to avoid negative affects by continuously switching paths. PowerPath squeezes as much performance (and resilience) out of their storage paths as possible because it can probe the link from host all the way to the back-end of a supported array and make decisions about active links accordingly. However PowerPath hosts do not communicate with each other and balances the I/O load on a host-by-host basis. This paragraph focuses on EMC solution; other storage vendors are releasing their NMP software with similar functionality. However not all vendors are providing their own software, and EMC PowerPath is only supported on a short list of storage vendors other than EMC own products.
Quality of Services on data paths
Quality of Services on data paths (QoS) is an interesting solution if it provides end-to-end QoS; from virtual machine to datastore. The hypervisor is context-rich environment, allowing kernel services to understand which I/O belongs to which virtual machine. However when the I/O exits the host and hits the network, the remaining identification is the address of the transmitting device of the host. There is no differentiation of priority possible other then at host level. Not all applications are equally important to the business, therefor end-to-end QoS is necessary to guarantee that business critical application get the resources they deserve. Scalability limitation on storage controller ports influences the overall impact of QoS. Similar to most algorithms, it does not aim to provide a balanced utilization of all available data paths; it deals with priority control during resource contention.
Storage Array layer
Storage DRS is able to migrate virtual machine files based on their resource demand. Storage DRS monitors the VMobserved latency, this includes the kernel and data path latency. Storage DRS incorporates the latency to calculate the benefit a migration has on the overall change in latency at source and destination datastore. It does not use the different latencies of kernel and data path to initiate a migration at compute level. Storage DRS initiates a self-vMotion to load the new VMX file as it has a different location after the storage vMotion, the virtual machine remains on the same hosts. In other words Storage DRS is not designed to migrate virtual machine at the compute layer or datastore layer to solve bandwidth imbalance.
Most popular arrays provide asymmetric LUN unit access. All ports on the Storage controllers accept incoming read and write operations, however the controller owning the LUN always manages read operations. Distributing LUNs across controllers are crucial as imbalance of CPU utilization or port utilization of the storage controllers can be easily introduced. LUNs can be manually transferred to improve CPU utilization, however this is not done dynamically unfortunately. Manual detection and management is as good as people watching it and not many organizations watch the environment at that scrutiny level all the time. Some might argue that arrays transfer the LUNs automatically, but that’s when a certain amount of “proxy reads” are detected. This means that the I/O’s are transmitted across the non-optimized paths, and likely either the PSP is not doing a great job, or all your active optimized paths are dead. Both not hallmarks of an healthy – or –properly architected environment.
Is oversizing a solution?
Oversizing bandwidth can help you so far, as its difficult to predict workload increase and intensity variation. Introduction of radically new application landscape impact current designs tremendously. When looking at the industry developments, its almost certain that most datacenters will be forced to absorb these new application landscapes, can current solutions applied in a traditional storage stack provide and guarantee the services they require and are they able to scale to provide the resources necessary?
Non-holistic load balancer available
In essence, the data-path between the compute layer and datastore layer is not treated as a clustered resource. Virtual machine host placement is based on compute resource availability and entitlement, disregarding the data path towards storage layer. This can potentially lead to hotspots inside the cluster, where some hosts saturate their data paths, while data paths of other hosts are underutilized. Data path saturation impacts application performance.
Unfortunately there is no mechanism available today that takes the various resource demands of a virtual machine into account. No solution at this time has the ability to intelligently manage these resources without creating other bottlenecks or impracticalities.
This article is not a stab at the current solutions. It is a very difficult problem to solve, especially for an industry that relies on various components of various vendors, expecting everything to integrate and perform optimally aligning. And think about moving forward and attempt to incorporate new technology advancements from all different vendors when they are available. And don’t forget about backward compatibility, world peace might be easier to solve.
With this problem in mind, the existence of uncontrollable data paths, oversubscribed inter-switch links and its inability to be application aware, many solutions nowadays move away from the traditional storage architecture paradigm. Deterministic performance delivery and Policy-driven management are the future and when no centralized control plane is available that stitching these disparate components together a different architecture arises. PernixData FVP, VMware VSAN and Hyper-converged systems rely on point-to-point network architectures of the crossbar switch architecture to provide consistent and non-blocking network performance to cater their storage performance and storage service resiliency needs.
Leveraging point-to-point connections and being able to leverage the context-aware hypervisor allows you not only to scale easily, it allows you to create environments that provide consistent and deterministic performance levels. The future datacenter is one step closer!
Part 4 focusses on the storage controller architecture and why leveraging host-to-host communication and host resource availability remove scalability issues.
Should I use consumer grade SSD drives or should I use enterprise grade SSD drives?
This a very popular question and I receive it almost on a daily basis. Lab or production environment, my answer is always the same: Enterprise grade without a doubt! Why? Enterprise Grade drives have a higher endurance level, they contain power loss data protection features and they consistently provide high level of performance. All align with a strategy ensuring reliable and consistent performance. Lets expand on these three key features;
Recently a lot of information is released about the endurance levels of consumer grade SSDs and tests show that they operate well beyond the claimed endurance levels. Exciting news as it shows how much progression is made during the last few years. But be aware that vendors test their consumer grade SSDs with client workloads while enterprise grade SSDs are tested with worst-case data center workload. The interesting question is whether the SSD vendor is list the rate a drive in DWPD or drive-writes per-day in a conservative manner or an aggressive manner? As I don’t want to gamble with customers’ data, I’m not planning to find out whether the consumer SSD wasn’t able to sustain high levels of continuous data center load. I believe vSphere architectures have high endurance requirements; therefore use enterprise drives as they are specifically designed and tested for this use.
Power loss data protection features
Not often highlighted but most enterprise SSDs contain power loss data protection features. These SSDs typically contains a small buffer or cache in which the data is stored before it’s written to disk. Enterprise SSD leverages various on-board capacitance solutions to provide enough energy for the SSD to move the data from the cache to the drive itself. Protecting the drive and the data. It protects the drive because if a sector is partially written it becomes unreadable. This can lead to performance problems, as the drive will perform time-consuming error recovery on that sector. Select Enterprise drives with power loss data protection features, it avoids erratic performance levels or even drive failure after a power-loss.
Last but certainly not least is the fact that enterprise SSDs are designed to provide a consistent level of performance. SSD vendors expect their enterprise disks to be used intensively for an extended period of time. This means that possibility of a full disk increases dramatically when comparing it to a consumer grade SSD. As data can only be written to a cell that is in an erased state, high levels of write amplification is expected. Please read this article to learn more about write amplification (write amp).
Write amp impacts the ratio of drive writes to host writes, that means that when write amp occurs the number of writes a drive needs to make increases considerably in order to execute those host writes. One way to reduce this strain is to “over-provision” the drive. Vendors, such as Intel, allocate a large amount of flash resource to allow the drive to absorb these write amp operations. This results in a more consistent rate of IOPS and predictable IOPS.
Impact on IOPS and Latency
I’ve done some testing in my lab, and used two enterprise flash drives, a Intel DC S3700 and a Kingston E-100. I also used two different consumer grade flash devices. I refrain from listing the type and vendor name of these disks. I ran the first test from 11:30 to 11:50 I ran the test an enterprise grade SSD drive, the rate of IOPS was consistent and predictable. The VM was migrated to the host with the consumer grade SSD and the same test was run again, not a single moment did the disk provide a steady rate of IOs.
Anandtech.com performed similar tests and witnessed similar behaviour, the publish their results in the article “Exploring the Relationship Between Spare Area and Performance Consistency in Modern SSDs” An excellent read, highly recommended.
Click on the different drive sizes to view their default performance and the impact of spare flash resources on the ability to provide consistent performance.
Next step was to determine latency behaviour. Both Enterprise grade SSD provided an extreme case of predictable latency. To try to create an even playing field I ran read tests instead of write centric tests. The first graph was a read test on the Kingston e100.
Latency was consistent providing predictable and consistent application response time.
The consumer grade drive performance charts were not as pretty. The virtual machine running the read test was the only workload hitting the drive and yet the drive had trouble providing steady response times.
Please note that the test were ran multiple times and the graphs shown are the most positive ones for the consumer grades. Multiple (enterprise-level) controllers were used to avoid any impact from that layer.
As more and more SSD drive hit the market we decided to help to determine which drives fit in a strategy ensuring reliable and consistent performance. Therefor PernixData started the PernixDrive initiative, in which we test and approve flash devices.
Providing consistent performance is key for predictable application behaviour. This applies to many levels of operation. First of all it benefits day-to-day customer satisfaction and helps you to reduce troubleshooting application performance. Power-loss data protection features help you to cope with short-term service loss, and avoid continuous performance loss as the drive can survive power-loss situations. Reverting applications to a non-accelerated state, due to complete loss of SSD drive can result in customer dissatisfaction or neglecting your SLA. Higher levels of drive-writes per-day help you to create and ensure high levels of consistent performance for longer terms.
In short, use the correct tool for the job and go for enterprise SSD drives.
Virtual Machine Storage Profiles are used to identify the storage capabilities necessary in order to properly run the application within the virtual machine. VM Storage Profiles need to enabled first on the hosts and/or Cluster before you are able to assign them to a virtual machine.
1. Select VM Storage Profiles in the Home screen
2. Select the Icon in the middle to enable VM Storage profiles
3. Select the cluster or host that you want to enable
Check if the host has the appropriate license
4. Create Storage Profiles
A VM storage profile is attached to a Storage capability. In turn a Storage Capability profile is attached to a datastore. For more information about storage capabilities please read the article: vSphere 5.0 Storage Features Part 11 – Profile Driven Storage by Cormac Hogan.
5. Go back to home
6. Select VM and Templates
7. Select Datacenter in the left pane
8. Select the menu option “Related Objects” in the right pane
9. Select the menu option “Virtual Machines”
10. Right click on a virtual machine
11. Select All vCenter Actions
12. Select Storage Profiles
13. Select Manage Storage Profiles
14. Apply the VM storage Profiles to the working directory and disk
Please note that you can assign different storage profiles to the virtual machine working directory and each single VMDK. The working directory is where the .vmx, .nvram, .log resides. This is listed in the UI as the Home VM location. Each VMDK can be assigned with a different storage profile to align it with your SLA’s.
In my blog post: “HP CA and the use of LUN balancing scripts” I tried to cover the possible impact of using HP continuous Access EVA on the LUN path load balancing scheme in ESX 3.x. I received a lot of questions about this and wanted to address some issues again and try to clarify them. Let’s begin with a recap of the HP CA article; The impact of CA on the load-balancing scheme is due to the fact that an EVA is an asymmetric Active-Active array that uses the Asymmetric Logical Unit Access protocol (ALUA). ESX3 is not ALUA aware and does not recognize the different specific access characteristics of the array’s target ports. VMware addressed this shortcoming and added ALUA support in the new storage stack of ESX4. The ALUA support is a great feature of the new storage architecture, it reduces a lot of extra manual steps of creating a proper load-balanced environment. But how exactly does ALUA identifies which path is optimized and will HP Continuous Access still have an impact on ESX4 environments as well?
[Read more…] about ESX4 ALUA, TPGS and HP CA